The scheduled items are not something that translates well in the database (schedulePart table) and are also in the Microsoft scheduler. The GUI interface in our application is the best place to see this data and will list the start times for the scan, the next scan time, last scan time, and the machine groups selected though the membership of each group can change and is not just a list in the DB due to the dynamic nature of the machine groups themselves. Though it does not provide deployment times it just has the patch scan start times. The deployments run when the scans complete and this will depend on your environment.
The best place to get a list of machines in a group is post scan and would be in the scan machines database table. This includes machines we could scan and the ones that failed. It also includes the name of each machine group the machine was scanned as part of. This is valuable since machines can be in multiple machine groups.